- Poster presentation
- Open Access
Blockade of surface bound TGF-β abrogates Treg suppression of effector T cell function within the tumor microenvironment
© Budhu et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2014
- Published: 6 November 2014
- Tumor Excision
- Effector Phase
- Tumor Killing
- Training GrantT32
Regulatory T cells (Treg) play a role in suppression of anti-melanoma immunity; however, the exact mechanism is poorly understood. Through intravital two photon microcopy, we found that tumor-specific Pmel-1 effectors engage in cell-cell interactions with tumor resident Tregs. To determine if contact between Tregs and Teff hinders killing of tumor cells in vivo, we utilized ex-vivo three-dimensional collagen-fibrin gel cultures of B16 melanoma cells. Collagen-fibrin gel cultures recapitulated the in vivo suppression, rendering the dissociated tumor resistant to killing by in vitro activated antigen specific T cells. In vivo depletion of Tregs in Foxp3-DTR mice prior to tumor excision reversed the suppression. In vivo modulation of Tregs by GITR ligation had a similar effect, reducing the number of intra-tumor Tregs leading to ex-vivo tumor killing. Using neutralizing antibodies, we found that blocking TGF-β reversed the suppression. In addition, soluble factors from collagen-fibrin gel tumors do not inhibit killing suggesting that suppression is contact or proximity dependent. The CD8 T cells recovered from these gels exhibit a decrease in Granzyme B expression and an increase in expression of T cell exhaustion marker PD-1. These findings support the conclusion that intra-tumor contact with Tregs during the effector phase of the immune response is responsible for inhibiting anti-melanoma immunity in a TGF-β dependent manner shedding light into novel ways to inhibit intratumoral Tregs.
This study was supported by Swim Across America; NIH grants R01CA56821, P01CA33049, and P01CA59350 (to J.W. and A.H.); D.S. and S.B. received support from the NIH/NCI Immunology Training GrantT32 CA09149-30.
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.