You are viewing the site in preview mode

Skip to main content


Modulation of chemically induced renal carcinogenesis by Chrysin via inhibition of oxidative stress, hyper-proliferation and inflammation at preclinical stage

The present study was planned to investigate the chemopreventive efficacy of Chrysin (CH) against renal carcinogenesis in Wistar rats. Ferric nitrilotriacetate (Fe-NTA) is a potent nephrotoxicant and known renal carcinogen. CH is a natural flavonoid found in honey, propolis, blue passion flower. In vitro data suggests that it has anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic properties. Renal carcinogenesis is a multistep process and it originates from a series of molecular and histopathological alterations. Renal cancer was initiated by single intraperitoneal injection of N-nitrosodiethylamine and promoted chronically by twice weekly administration of Fe-NTA for 16 weeks and rats were sacrificed after 24 weeks. CH was administered at two doses daily. The possible mechanism could be induction of oxidative stress via upregulation of Lipid peroxidation (LPO), protein carbonyl (PC) and xanthine oxidase (XO); cellular proliferation via up regulation of Proliferative cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), Ki-67 and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) along with reduction of inflammation by down regulating nuclear factor kappa B (NFkB), Cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2), inducible nitric oxide (iNOS), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Prophylactic treatment of CH mitigated serum toxicity markers, oxidative stress markers, reduced tumor incidences, down regulated proliferation and inflammation. These results provide a powerful evidence for the chemo preventive efficacy of CH at pre-clinical stage.


The authors are thankful to UGC, New Delhi India under SAP for Departmental Research Support II and BSR for the award of project to carry out the study.

Author information

Correspondence to Summya Rashid.

Rights and permissions

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark


  • Nitric Oxide
  • Proliferative Cell Nuclear Antigen
  • Xanthine Oxidase
  • Propolis
  • Oxidative Stress Marker