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Table 1 Reported cases of immunotherapy-associated T1D

From: Genetic risk analysis of a patient with fulminant autoimmune type 1 diabetes mellitus secondary to combination ipilimumab and nivolumab immunotherapy

Study No. of patients Patients Age/Sex Past medical history Checkpoint inhibitor therapy Positive serologies Genetics Comments
Gaudy et al. 1 1 44/F None Pembrolizumab Unavailable Unavailable  
Martin Liberal et al. 1 1 54/F Mild asthma Ipilimumab and pembrolizumab GAD65 70.1 U/mL DRB1*04, DQB1*0302 (HLA A2 DRA DQ8)  
Hughes et al. 5 1 55/F Autoimmune thyroid disease Nivolumab None A2.1, DR4 Patient had previously progressed through ipilimumab
2 83/F Remote smoker Nivolumab GAD65 1.2 U/mL A2.1, DR4  
3 63/M Hypertension Nivolumab GAD65 1.1 U/mL, ICA5 1.2 U/mL, IAA 47 U/mL A2.1, DR4  
4 58/M Type 2 diabetes mellitus Nivolumab GAD65 13819 U/mL A2.1  
5 64/F Autoimmune thyroid disease, psoriasis Pembrolizumab None DR4  
Okamoto et al. 1 1 55/F Dyslipidemia, gastric ucler Nivolumab None DRB1*04:05, DQB1*04:01 (DR4)  
Miyoshi et al. 1 1 66/F None Nivolumab None DRB1*11:01 13:02:01, DQB1*03:01:01 06:04:01  
Brahmer et al. 1 1 unavailable Unavailable BMS-936559 anti-PDL1 antibody Unavailable Unavailable  
Hoffmann et al. 3 1 70/F None Nivolumab None Unavailable Patient had previously progressed through ipilimumab
2 78/F Type 2 diabetes mellitus Nivolumab GAD positive Unavailable  
3 58/F None Pembrolizumab GAD, IAA positive Unavailable  
  1. Diabetic autoantibodies referenced include GAD65, ICA5, and insulin (IAA). Normal GAD65 titers < 0.5 U/ml, ICA5 < 1.0 U/ml, IAA < 5.0 U/ml