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Fig. 1 | Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer

Fig. 1

From: Targeting adenosine for cancer immunotherapy

Fig. 1

Extracellular Adenosine Creates a Highly Immunosuppressive Microenvironment. ATP in tumor tissue is released from cellular breakdown as well as vesicular and/or channel-mediated release. Adenosine is generated from enzymatic dephosphorylation of ATP, as well as direct release from tumor cells. While ATP functions as a danger signal for immune response, adenosine is an immunosuppressive metabolite, signaling largely through the A2aR and A2b receptors on a wide range of innate and adaptive immune cells. Inhibiting agents presently in clinical trials are depicted in red; agents targeting hypoxia and CD39 are in preclinical stage of development and are depicted in blue. Agents targeting the A2b receptor are in various stages of development, but are not depicted

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