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Table 2 Serum/plasma levels of soluble receptors and ligands detected in different types of diseases and their correlations with prognosis or outcomes

From: Soluble immune checkpoints in cancer: production, function and biological significance

Soluble receptor/ligand Related diseases Number of patients Type of analyses Serum/plasma levels Prognosis/outcomes References
sPD-1 HCC n = 126 Multivariate + High levels of viral load and sPD-1 associated with increase in risk of HCC [22]
RA (Rheumatoid arthritis) n = 95 \ + \ [85]
  n = 82 \ \ [86]
ITP (Immune thrombocytopenia) n = 67 \ \ [87]
HCV (Hepatitis C virus) infection n = 63 \ + \ [88]
AA (Aplastic anemia) n = 80 \ + \ [89]
Sepsis n = 112 Multivariate + High levels associated with higher 28-day mortality [90]
ARDS (Acute respiratory distress syndrome) n = 10–13 \ + \ [91]
sPD-L1 DLBCL n = 288 Multivariate/ univariate + Elevated sPD-L1 experienced a poorer 3-year OS [34]
NKTCL n = 77 Multivariate/ univariate + High concentration associated with shorter survival [38]
Oral squamous cell carcinoma n = 82 Univariate + Higher levels associated with lower tumor cell differentiation [41]
HL n = 108 Multivariate + Higher levels associated with shorter progression-free survival [42]
CE (Cystic echinococcosis) n = 51 \ + \ [44]
AR (Allergic rhinitis) n = 90 Univariate Lower levels associated with lower disease severity [92]
T1DM (Type 1 diabetes mellitus) n = 176 \ \ [93]
T2DM (Type 2 diabetes mellitus) n = 125 Univariate + Higher levels associated with increased severity of diabetic atherosclerotic macrovascular diseases [94]
sPD-L2 SSc (Systemic sclerosis) n = 91 Univariate + Higher levels associated worse pulmonary fibrosis [95]
sCTLA-4 B-ALL n = 80 \ + \ [50]
RA n = 56 Univariate + Higher levels associated with higher disease activity [96]
Chronic hepatitis n = 81 \ + \ [97]
T1DM \ \ + \ [98]
SpA (Spondyloarthropathies) n = 165 Univariate + Higher levels associated with higher disease activity [99]
sCD80 CLL n = 34 Univariate + Higher levels associated with poorer prognosis [55]
RA n = 56 Univariate + The levels did not correlate with disease activity [96]
Acute asthma n = 16 \ + \ [100]
sCD86 Leukemia n = 24 \ + \ [66]
AML n = 57 Multivariate + Higher levels associated with shorter survival [67]
Myeloma n = 299 Multivariate/ univariate + Higher levels associated with shorter survival in ABCM + P patients [68]
RA n = 35 \ + \ [101]
SLE (Systemic lupus erythematosus) n = 79 \ + \ [102]
Acute asthma n = 16 \ + \ [100]
  n = 68 \ + Higher levels associated with acute asthma exacerbation [103]
sB7-H3 Glioma n = 78 Univariate \ Higher levels associated with high-grade glioma [72]
ESHCC n = 149 Multivariate/ univariate + Higher levels associated with lower survival rate [74]
Sepsis n = 27 Univariate + Higher levels associated with a poor outcome [104]
Chronic prostatitis n = 91 \ \ \ [105]
MS (Multiple sclerosis) n = 32 Univariate Lower levels associated with a poorer outcome [106]
CHB (Chronic HBV infection) n = 136 Univariate + Increased levels associated with the progression of liver cirrhosis [107]
SLE n = 78 Univariate Higher levels associated with higher disease activity [108]
sCD137 Colon cancer n = 76 \ + \ [80]
Leukemia and lymphoma n = 173 \ + \ [81]
Acute pancreatitis n = 41 Univariate + Higher levels associated with a poor outcome [109]
ACS (acute coronary syndrome) n = 180 Multivariate + Higher levels associated with increased risk for adverse cardiovascular events [110]
Multiple sclerosis n = 26 Univariate + Higher levels associated with higher disease activity [111]
RA n = 30 Univariate + Higher levels associated with higher disease severity [112]
Acute atherothrombotic stroke n = 27 \ + \ [113]
  1. Such studies supply information for the formulation of therapeutic strategies. The type of analyses refers to the way of analysis of the associations between levels and prognosis or outcomes. + means higher than controls; − means lower than controls; \ in serum/plasma levels means no significant difference between patients and controls, \ in types of analyses and prognosis/outcomes means no data found